Artist's Resources∼Artist's Dictionary R

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R.A.   Royal Academician, a member of the Royal Academy of Arts; London, England.
Rabbitskin glue   Glue used as a size or binder; sold in solid form, granules or sheets.
Radial balance   Accomplished by forms or elements designed as a wheel around a main subject.
Radiation lines   Lines that emit from a common point, but radiate in different directions.
Rag   Paper made exclusively from cloth, if only partial, the percentage of rag is stated on the label.
Railroad board   a smooth, six-ply board, available in many colors, that can be used on both sides for posters, lettering and the like.
Rainbow printing   In graphics, rolling several colors simultaneously onto a plate or stone from a single roller, and blending the edges.
Raising preparation   A nonflowing paste used for raised or embossed effects before gilt is applied; may becomes tacky in humid conditions but holds its form when dry.
Rapidiograph pen   Brand name for a technical drawing pen. See Technical pen.
Rasp   A rounded metal "file-like" tool with a rough texture used for rough shaping wood, stone plaster and clay.
Rayonnism   (called Lutschism in Russia) A Russian offshoot of cubism, led by Mikhail Larionov (1831-1964) who was interested in the forms created when intersecting rays of light hit a subject.
Realism   1. A way of painting nature without distortion. 2. The philosphy of painting, lead by Courbet, centered on unidealized, every day subject matter.
Ream  500 sheets of paper.
Receding colors   Cool colors, blue, green and violets, that seem to move back, in comparison with warm color, yellow, orange, red, that appear to come forward or advance.
Recified petroleum   A good quality petroleum spirit that is used to thin oils and clean brushes.
Rectified turpentine   A pure form of turpentine (double-distilled) used by Artists to clean oil brushes, amd as a medium for oil and alkyd paints.
Rectilinear   Made of straight lines.
Recto   Right hand page. See also Verso.
Reducer   In printmaking, a medium added to primarily dilute thick ink so it will print more easily.
Reducing glass   A double-concave lens used to see how ArtWork looks when reduced in size.
Reduction printing   In printmaking, for registration purposes, the largest color areas are printed first, then the next sizes in sequence, and finally the smallest spaces.
Reductivism   A procedure for reducing, diminishing or simplfying, with fewer lines, less color, etc.
Reed pen   Now only the bamboo pen, usually sharpened at both ends and used for ink drawings.
Reflected light   Light is "bent" or "thrown back" on something. Example: If you paint a silver pitcher which is placed on a red cloth, some red will probably be apparent in the pitcher. This red is called "reflected color".
Reflex printing   A copy method in which a sensitized film or paper is placed face down on the material to be copied, light passes through the base of the sensitized film and is reflected from the light and dark portions of the original back to the emulsion.
Registration marks   Marks that indicate where overlays or plates are to be aligned.
Reichenau School   A German School of manuscript illuminators, about 965-1025 A.D., noted for its huge gold letters that often took up the whole page.
Reims School   A French School of manuscript illuminators during the Carolingian era, 8th to 11th centuries A.D.
Relief   A variation of elevation in sculpture, a raised effect ranging from low (bas-relief or basso rilievo) to high (alto rilievo).
Relief etching   A procedure in which large areas of a plane are etched away and the design is left standing so it can be surface-printed.
Relief printing   In printmaking, a means of printing design or type that stands above the surface of the printing block; woodcuts and rubber stamps print by relief methods.
Relining   In restoring an old painting, the process of mounting it on a new canvas support.
Rembrandt, Harmensz, van Rijn   (1606-1669) Dutch, printimaker and painter, his Works, which focused on landscapes, people, history and portraits, are well known for their chiaroscuro technique. A series of self-portraitscovering a period of forty years show his deep concern for expression and control of values. Rembrandt is considered among the most important painters of his time. *
Renaissance Art   14th, 15th and 16th century Art in Western Europe charactized by the revival of classical design and concern for humanistic values; Artists included Michangelo, RaphaelDavinci and many others.
Renaissance Art Resources   For more on Renaissance Art Resources, including Guide to Art Schools, please visit this helppful link: Renaissance: Guide to Art Schools
Renaissance cloth   In folded cloth, where all ends are rounded.
Renoir, Pierre Auguste   (1841-1919) French impressionist, known for his appealing figures, multiple figure compositions, portraits, flowers and luminous landscapes.
Repeat glass   An optical instrument used by textile designers, made of four lenses through which a design appears to be repeated four times.
Replica   A copy or reproduction of a Work of Art, especially when made by the same Artist who created the original Work.
Repousse   In metalwork, a technique of hammering, scratching or pressing metal on either side to create a design.
Representational Art   Art Work that purports to represent what is seen; also called "Objective Art".
Reproduction   A copy of an original Work of Art made by someone other than the Artist, usuallly by mechanical means and most often for commercial use.
Reproduction right  The right to maintain control of the reproduction of Art Work or other copyrighted material. See Copyrighting for more information.
Rescale   To enlarge or reduce Art Work so the material will fit into a given area or space on a page layout; usually figured in percentages, calibrated for the engraver's copying camera.
Resin ground   A ground used when making an aquatint by dusting it on the plate and heating the surface; the covering acts as an acid resistant that is neccesary in creating the tonal effects in the aquatint.
Retardant   An additive to a paint medium to delay the drying time, such as oil of cloves, oil of lavender and others.
Retirage   (French ""pulling again") In graphics, the pulling of a second print without reinking the plate.
Retouch varnish   A diluted liquid or spray varnish is used between applications of oil paint to restore the wet look, to matte colors for easier color matching ; also utilized as a gloss coat on a finished painting until the final varnish is applied.
Retouch white   An opaque white paint used to cover unwanted areas in pictures and to make corrections.
Retrospective   A review of a large body of Work produced during an Artoists' lifetime.
Retroussage   In printmaking, a method of leaving a trace of ink on the surface of an itaglio plate; the process makes the value of the incised lines richer.
Reversed perspective   In opposition the mechanical perspective; objects in the front of a picture are smaller than those far away.
Rhodamine   A synthetic dyestuff used for making red lake pigments.
Rhomb/Rhomboid/Rhombus   A four-sided figure with all sides equal and opposite sides parallel, but two angles are acute and two are obtuse.
Rice paper   (Japanese) A lightweight paper made in different textures, sizes, weights and colors, can be used for watercolors, inks, and printing.
Riffler  A particular style of a curved rasp. See also Rasp.
Rigger   A long, pointed, usually sable brush used to paint long lines, branches on trees, and fine details.
Rocker   A textured tool used in mezzotint to prepare the surface of the plate; also called a "Cradle".
Roccoco   A delicate 18th century style of Art and decoration with a concern for the trivial rather than the significant. Colorful and capricious, closely linked historically to the fashionable reign of Louis XV of France; Artists included Watteau, Boucher, Fragonard and Tiepopl.
Rodin, Auguste   (1840-1917) A French romanistic sculptor who was influenced by the Work of Michangelo. One of the leading sculptors of the late 19th century and early 20th centuries. Two of his most famous Works are "The thinker" and "The kiss".
Roller   See Brayer.
Roller Art   A means of painting with a brayer technique that involves bouncing, twisting, scraping or any other means of laying paint on the surface with a roller; unique effects can be created that are difficult to achieve by any other means.
Roll-up  The process of inking a plate or stone with a roller.
Roman   1.   A general term used to describe any typeface or font with serifs. 2.   Any upright typeface or font, as distinguished from the slanting fonts.
Romanesque   A transistional style of European Art from the 9th to the 12th centuries, preceding Gothic Art; primarily for and of the Church, its most notable Art contributions are in architecture and stone sculpture adornment.
Roman Key   See Greek Key pattern.
Roman stripes   In textile design, usually wide and colorful stripes.
Romanticism   An emotional, often idealised means of expression; romanticism is an Art, noteable in the 19th century, usually thought of of as in basic opposition to the classical.
Romayne medallions   Profile portraits used as design in Gothic Art.
Rosemahling   The painting of roses, usually in craft decoration.
Rose pink   Pigment, a weak pink made from Brazilwood, fugitive.
Rosin  A translucent yellowish to dark brown resin derived from the stumps or sap of various pine trees. Used to manufacture a wide variety of products including varnishes, inks, linoleum, adhesives, and soldering compounds.
Ross board   Trade name of an illustration board with a variety of rough-textured surfaces, designed for line reproduction giving a half-tone effect to crayon and ink brush strokes, highlight effects can be acheived by scratching away the coated surface, as with scratchboard.
Rotary press   A press of which rotates the paper while the other prints on it; large continuous rolls of paper are used.
Rotten stone   A soft, decomposed limestone used in powder form for cleaning and polishing photographs for retouching.
Rouault, Georges   (1871-1958) French painter and printmaker, his expressive dark lines and vivid colors in his paintings were developed from his experience in a stained-glass shop. Rouault exhibited with the original Les Fauves.
Rough stipple   A heavy texture on reproduction board.
Round   A pointed brush available in sable, synthetic and bristle.
Roundel   In design, a semi-circular recess, as a rounded window or niche.
Royal Academy of the Arts   A fine Arts society in London, founded in 1768.
Royal  See Watercolor paper sizes.
Royalty   A percentage paid to an Artist by a publisher for each copy of the Artists' Work that is sold.
Rubber brayer   In graphics, a soft rubber roller used for inking in etching, blocking, etc. See also Brayer.
Rubber cement   A paper-mounting compound that dries quickly; excess is easily removed by rubbing after it is dry; may stain surface in time and is not recommended for mounting Art of Permanent value.
Rubbing   A design or pattern transferred from a tombstone or other surface to a slightly damp paper laid on the surface; a flat piece of chalk, charcoal or pencil is rubbed over the surface until the design is completely transferred.
Rubbing ink   In lithography, a rectangular cake of ink, applied by rubbing a finger across the ink and then onto the stone.
Rub-down   A transfer of an original design to another paper or surface.
Rubenism/Rubenistes   Following the style of the Rubens, the late 17th and 18th century Artists involved felt color in paiting to be more important then draftsmanship; Watteau was one of the leading Artists. See also Poussinistes.
Rubens, Peter Paul   (1577-1640) A Flemish painter in the high baroque style. A superb draftsman, he is known for the luminous flesh tones and flamboyant compostitions. Rubens was without a doubt the outstanding painter of his day.
Rubylith   A transparent ruby-colored masking film used in making mechanicals and in the film processes of lithography.
Ruby masking film   A red light-safe making film used in the preparation of Art Work for photography, silk-screen, etc.
Ruling pen   A drawing instrument made of two parallel blades that are adjustable to regulate the size of the point and amount of ink.
Rumpling   Bumps or wrinkles formed in paper, usually from too much water (in watercolor paintings)
Run   The edition, or number of prints pulled in lithography, etching, etc.
Run-around   A composition where the text is indented or formed to accomodate an Illustration. In computer terms, it would be called "wrap-around text".
R.W.S.   Royal Watercolour Society. (British)